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Handbook | C. General Rules and Recommendations for Tournaments | 04. FIDE Swiss Rules | 04.2. Regulations for Swiss System Tournaments | D. Miscellaneous

D. Miscellaneous


Tie-break Rules

Specific tie-break rules are given in regulations of most FIDE competitions. In the absence of such regulations, precedence shall be determined by the following:

  1. For swiss tournaments where the players involved have all played only against rated opponents, after eliminating the lowest rated opponent, find the sum of opponents' ratings. The highest total wins. If still tied, eliminate the rating of the next lowest rated opponent(s) until a decision is possible.

  2. For other Swiss tournaments, the sum of progressive scores. The highest total wins. If still tied, deduct the first round score, and if necessary the second round and so on.


Late entries

According to FIDE Tournament Rules, any prospective participant who has not arrived at the venue of a FIDE competition before the scheduled time for the drawing of lots shall be excluded from the tournament. An exception may be made in the case of a registered participant who has given written notice in advance that he will be unavoidably late. Where the Chief Arbiter decides to admit a Late Entrant,

  1. if the player's notified time of arrival is in time for the start of the first round, the player is given a pairing number and paired in the usual way.

  2. if the player's notified time of arrival is in time only for the start of the second (or third) round, then the player is not paired for the rounds which he cannot play. Instead, he receives no points for unplayed rounds, and is given an appropriate pairing number and paired only when he actually arrives. In these circumstances, the Pairing Numbers that were given at the start of the tournament are considered provisional. The definitive Pairing Numbers are given only when the List of Participants is closed, and corrections made accordingly in the results charts. A player who is not present cannot receive the Bye.


Maximising players' opportunities

The FIDE Swiss Rules pair the players in an objective and impartial way, and different arbiters following the pairing rules should arrive at identical pairings. A proposal for varying the normal pairing so as to maximise players' opportunities to fulfil title requirements was not approved in the Graz Congress.


As directed by the Kishinev Congress 1997, below is the list of endorsed programmes and their respective capabilities:

  1. PETUNIA Dutch System
  2. GMB Lim System
  3. SWISS CHESS Dutch System
  4. SVBOSS Dutch System
  5. DUBOV
  6. BURSTEIN System (GA '98)

Mandatory information to be provided in tournament's reports by arbiters


While reporting a tournament to FIDE, the Arbiter shall declare which of the official FIDE Swiss Systems was used. (GA '97).


If another system was used, the Arbiter has to submit the rules of this system for checking by the Swiss Pairing Committee (GA '97)


Where it can be shown that modifications of the original pairings were made in favour of a player to achieve a norm, a report may be submitted to the Qualification Commissionto initiate disciplinary measures through the Ethics Commission (GA '97)


Amendments to the existing Swiss Sytem Rules (Dutch System)

The rules B2, B5 and B6 shall not apply in the last round at scoregroups with a score over 50 % if this helps to produce a greater number of pairings in the scoregroup. If the number of pairings would be the same when these rules are used, they shall be used.


Pairings for members of the same federation

Members of the same federation in a scoregroup of over 50 % will be not be paired against each other in the last three rounds of a Swiss tournament in Youth and Junior Championships (EB '99)

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